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Preliminary Characterization of Native American Glass Beads Using IR Spectroscopy
We present preliminary results on the nature of dissolved water in glass beads to Native American connections with early European traders and explorers. Our study involves the first investigation of these glass artifacts ...
Characterization of 18th Century French Glass Trade Beads from Fort Mackinac, MI : Chemistry and Infrared Spectroscopy
Glass trade beads made in Europe were an important commodity in colonial North America. The style and composition of glass beads were unique to each manufacturing site and can be used today to trace trading relationships ...
Characterization of 18th Century French Glass from Saint-Nicolas-des-Biefs, Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, France : Chemistry and Infrared Spectroscopy
Glass beads manufactured in Europe were brought to North America and used in trade with native American peoples. The style and composition of glass beads can be used to trace intercontinental connections between the 16th ...